Is this situation familiar to you?
We've all been there. It may be especially stressful if you have to use a style that you’re not familiar with. But, with the right resources and a few key points in mind , you can make referencing a pain-free process!
Choose The Right System
The key thing to know about Chicago style references is that there are two systems.
Notes and Bibliography (NB)
Mostly used in the humanities
Uses numbered footnotes or endnotes
End list of sources is titled "Bibliography"
Mostly used in sciences/social sciences
Uses short citations in parentheses
End list of sources is titled "References"
💡 Your instructor will likely tell you which system to use. If they don't, make sure to ask!
Citing Sources In The Text (NB)
In the notes and bibliography system, you use a raised number (superscript) in the text to reference a source. This number corresponds to a note labelled with the same number at the bottom of the page (footnote) or on a list at the end of your paper (endnote).
The sources you reference in the notes will also be referenced with full citations in the bibliography at the end of your paper.
Click here to see examples of how to cite a variety of source types in the NB style.
While reading a journal article, you see a small raised number "2" at the end of a quote. What does this mean?
Citing Sources In The Text (AD)
In the author-date system, you use parentheses in the text to reference a source. In this in-text citation, include:
the author's last name
the year they published their work
the page number of your source
The short in-text citations match up with full citations on the references page at the end of your paper.
Click hereto see examples of how to cite a variety of source types in the AD style.
You see this citation at the end of a sentence: (LaSalle 2017, 95). What does this tell you about the information in that sentence?
Citing Sources In The End List
Although the end lists have different titles, both systems use a similar style for citations.
Some general guidelines:
List up to 10 authors. For more than 10 authors, list the first 7, followed by "et al."
Use the word "and" for sources with multiple authors, instead of the symbol "&".
If you can't identify the author, cite the source using its title.
If you can't identify the publication date, use "n.d." in its place.