Is this situation familiar to you?

Meme showing happiness then disappointment after realizing you still have to write the references after finishing your paper.

We've all been there. It may be especially stressful if you have to use a style that you’re not familiar with. But, with the right resources and a few key points in mind , you can make referencing a pain-free process!

Choose The Right System

The key thing to know about Chicago style references is that there are two systems.

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Notes and Bibliography (NB)

  • Mostly used in the humanities

  • Uses numbered footnotes or endnotes

  • End list of sources is titled "Bibliography"

Author-Date (AD)

  • Mostly used in sciences/social sciences

  • Uses short citations in parentheses

  • End list of sources is titled "References"

💡 Your instructor will likely tell you which system to use. If they don't, make sure to ask!

Citing Sources In The Text (NB)

In the notes and bibliography system, you use a raised number (superscript) in the text to reference a source. This number corresponds to a note labelled with the same number at the bottom of the page (footnote) or on a list at the end of your paper (endnote).

Example of an in-text citation in the NB style. Click the link below for text-based examples.The sources you reference in the notes will also be referenced with full citations in the bibliography at the end of your paper.

Click here to see examples of how to cite a variety of source types in the NB style.

Quiz

While reading a journal article, you see a small raised number "2" at the end of a quote. What does this mean?

This is the 2nd quote in the article

See note 2 for the source of the quote

There are 2 sources for this quote

None of the above

Citing Sources In The Text (AD)

In the author-date system, you use parentheses in the text to reference a source. In this in-text citation, include:

  • the author's last name

  • the year they published their work

  • the page number of your source

Example of an in-text citation in the AD style. Click the link below for text-based examples.The short in-text citations match up with full citations on the references page at the end of your paper.

Click hereto see examples of how to cite a variety of source types in the AD style.

Quiz

You see this citation at the end of a sentence: (LaSalle 2017, 95). What does this tell you about the information in that sentence?

The source author's last name is LaSalle

The source was published in 2017

The information is from page 95

All of the above

Citing Sources In The End List

Although the end lists have different titles, both systems use a similar style for citations.

Bibliography (NB)

Example of a bibliography. Click the link below for a text-based example.References (AD)

Example of a reference list. Click the link below for a text-based example.Some general guidelines:

  • List up to 10 authors. For more than 10 authors, list the first 7, followed by "et al."

  • Use the word "and" for sources with multiple authors, instead of the symbol "&".

  • If you can't identify the author, cite the source using its title.

  • If you can't identify the publication date, use "n.d." in its place.

Check out these pages to see what a full bibliography and reference list look like.

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This Byte has been authored by

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Nithusha Gobal

Graduate Student in Education